We will now look at the different types of peering. Private peering is where two network operators agree to interconnect the networks and exchange their respective rights for the purpose of ensuring that customers can reach each other directly over the peering link. Settlement free peering is where there are no traffic charges and is the most common form of peering on the Internet today paid peering is where two operators agree to exchange traffic charges for appearing relationship how these paid peering operate usually depends on the two operators concerned bilateral peering is very similar to a private peering but usually takes place at a public peering part for example an internet exchange point multilateral peering takes place at internet exchange points where operators all peer with each other via a device called a right server and mandatory multilateral peering is where operators are forced to appear with each other as a condition of their exchange point membership indeed mandatory multilateral peering is strongly discouraged it has no record of success there are one or two places in the world with exchange point and the members have agreed on a mandatory multilateral peering policy and this works for them in their particular circumstances but the vast experience around the globe has shown that bilateral peering a multilateral peering of the most successful types of peering taking place at internet exchange points there's also open peering open peering is where an isp publicly states that they will appear with all parties who approach them for peering this is commonly found internet exchange points where the isp or network operator will participate via the route server there is selective peering where an ISPs peering policy depends on the nature of the operator who requests peering with them at ixps the operator will not generally appear with the route server but will only appear bilaterally and finally there is restrictive peering where an ISP decides who its peering partners are and is generally not approachable to considering peering opportunities the peering database documents ISP peering policies and you can reach it through the URL peering DB comm I would like to advise all operators of autonomous systems to register the details in the peering DB even if at the moment the operator is not at an internet exchange part this gives the a/s visibility within the peering community and should the operator come to an exchange point in the future the entry is visible in the peering DB and can be updated as required furthermore participation in the peering fora is strongly encouraged as well there is the global peering forum the GP F which is where multinational operators and regional operators meet to discuss and negotiate peering opportunities but every region also has its own peering forum whether it's European peering forum the Middle Eastern the Asian peering forum Caribbean Latin America Africa and so on indeed the peering fora are so successful many countries now operate their own peering fora either as part of the local exchange point activity or as part of of the local network Operations Group the slide shows an example of appearing DB entry this particular one is from the Equinix internet exchange point at Palo Alto the former Palo Alto internet exchange and the slide shows typical examples of the peers available at this exchange point it shows their address the contact information the prefixes used at the exchange point and the peers present there as well and you can see the different peering policies that the different peers have the type of bandwidth that they would connect with and their dress space that they would probably be announcing the other peering DB entry being shown is that of a typical operator this is a content provider it shows the locations that present at the IP addresses on the peering infrastructure the bandwidth at the different locations and so on so as you can see the peering DB is an extremely useful summary of which operators are present at which facilities and the amount of bandwidth these operators have available at each facility. So as I said earlier I'm strongly encourage all operators who have an autonomous system number to register the AS number in the PeeringDB and register any other useful information which makes them more attractive to potential peers in the future.

© Produced by Philip Smith and the Network Startup Resource Center, through the University of Oregon.

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